Modern nation states and organizations mostly run by virtue of what is known of Enlightenment values (EV). For more discussion on EV see,

There may be various permutations of these values in an organization. Though permutations may vary, for large organizations to exist, the existence of the individual components of the EV is almost essential. These are the factor that gel the organization and propel it to higher goals.

Matrix of Enlightenment values (MOEV) is qualitative assessment of the components of Enlightenment values embedded in various organizations.

Nation Empiricism Skepticism Liberty Individualism Rule of law (ROL)
Soviet Union +++ ++
China +++ + + +++
USA +++ ++ +++ ++++ +++
Netherlands ++++ +++ +++ ++++ ++++
Japan +++ ++ +++ +++ ++++
India ++ ++ ++
Indian constitution*


+++ ++ +++ +++ NA**
Pakistan + + +
UAE + + ++++
Saudi Arabia




Singapore ++ ++ +++ ++++



* I have included an entity that is dissimilar to the overall category to reinforce the point that nations and their constitution may have independent or even divergent existence. However, constitution of a nation guide it to a path if it is given an ‘aura’ of sanctity. The idea of ‘constitutional morality’ is a value system emerging in a nation by virtue of the aura of sanctity given to its constitutional principles. In modern nations with written constitution like the United States, this is very much true. At the same time, in those nations whose constitutions are overturned multiple times, this ‘aura of sanctity’ is rapidly dissipated or in worse case will not even emerge in the nation’s consciousness. Many nations in Asia and Africa suffer from this dissipation of notion of ‘constitutional morality’.

**   Not applicable because ‘rule of law’ is the practical application of laws,   and it cannot be ascribed to a body of principles and laws like a constitution.

MOEV helps us to understand why certain states failed, why certain others flourish, and why certain other states sustain despite paucity of major elements of EVs. It helps us to understand that different EVs have different weightage for different components of the state. It shows that components of EV while successful in driving science (like empiricism), may not be enough to drive the society as a whole. It may give temporary outcome, but over a period of time the state loses steam.

While empiricism and skepticism are the driving force of science, liberty and individualism are driving force for liberal democracy. Here we have to understand that democracy can be illiberal too. Illiberal democracy without ROL is a potent concoction for failure of states. We saw many such states in the West Asia when democracy mixed with illiberal ideas yielding states that degenerate fast.

The matrix can be constructed for different organization, ideologies and subnational entities. Its open for empirical validation if appropriate indices are developed to capture the components of EV.









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